Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Childhood and family background
In the years from 1904 to 1914, Mises attended lectures given by the prominent Austrian economist Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk. Mises taught at the Vienna University in the years from 1913 to 1934, while also serving as a principal economic adviser to the Austrian government.
To avoid the influence of National Socialists in his Austrian homeland, and fearing repression due to his Jewish ancestry He received an honorary doctorate from Grove City College.
Despite his growing fame, Mises listed himself plainly in the New York phone directory and he welcomed students freely to his home. Mises died at the age of 92 at St Vincent's hospital in New York.

Professional life
Part of a series on Libertarianism Agorism Anarcho-capitalism Geolibertarianism Green libertarianism Right-libertarianism Left-libertarianism Minarchism Neolibertarianism Paleolibertarianism Austrian School Chicago School Classical liberalism Individualist anarchism Civil liberties Free markets Free trade Laissez-faire Liberty Individualism Non-aggression Private property Self-ownershipLudwig von Mises Economic views Libertarian theorists History Movement Parties Theories of law Views of rights Criticism of libertarianism Mises wrote and lectured extensively on behalf of classical liberalism and is seen as one of the leaders of the Austrian School of economics. In his treatise on economics, Human Action, Mises introduced praxeology as the conceptual foundation of the science of human action, establishing economic laws of apodictic certainty rejecting positivism and material causality. Many of his works, including Human Action, were on two related economic themes:
Mises argued that money is demanded for its usefulness in purchasing other goods, rather than for its own sake and that any significant credit expansion causes business cycles. His other notable contribution was his argument that socialism must fail economically because of the economic calculation problem — the impossibility of a socialist government being able to make the economic calculations required to organize a complex economy. Mises projected that without a market economy there would be no functional price system, which he held essential for achieving rational allocation of capital goods to their most productive uses. Socialism would fail as demand cannot be known without prices, according to Von Mises. Mises' criticism of socialist paths of economic development is well-known.
The only certain fact about Russian affairs under the Soviet regime with regard to which all people agree is: that the standard of living of the Russian masses is much lower than that of the masses in the country which is universally considered as the paragon of capitalism, the United States of America. If we were to regard the Soviet regime as an experiment, we would have to say that the experiment has clearly demonstrated the superiority of capitalism and the inferiority of socialism.
These arguments were elaborated on by subsequent Austrian economists such as Hayek.
In Interventionism, An Economic Analysis (1940), Ludwig von Mises wrote:
The usual terminology of political language is stupid. What is 'left' and what is 'right'? Why should Hitler be 'right' and Stalin, his temporary friend, be 'left'? Who is 'reactionary' and who is 'progressive'? Reaction against an unwise policy is not to be condemned. And progress towards chaos is not to be commended. Nothing should find acceptance just because it is new, radical, and fashionable. 'Orthodoxy' is not an evil if the doctrine on which the 'orthodox' stand is sound. Who is anti-labor, those who want to lower labor to the Russian level, or those who want for labor the capitalistic standard of the United States? Who is 'nationalist,' those who want to bring their nation under the heel of the Nazis, or those who want to preserve its independence?

monetary economics and inflation;
the differences between government controlled economies and free trade. Contributions to the field of economics
The Theory of Money and Credit (1912) • Socialism (1922) • Liberalism (1927) • Omnipotent Government (1944) • Human Action (1949) • The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality (1956)

The Theory of Money and Credit
Nation, State, and Economy
Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis

  • Full text: [1]
    Critique of Interventionism
    Epistemological Problems of Economics
    Omnipotent Government: The Rise of Total State and Total War
    Human Action: A Treatise on Economics

    • preceded by Nationalökonomie in 1940 (Full German text in PDF)
      Theory and History: An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution
      The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality
      The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science
      Economic Policy: Thoughts for Today and Tomorrow Books

      Austrian School
      Analytic-synthetic distinction and Ludwig von Mises' response to the Kantian challenge
      Contributions to liberal theory
      Hans-Hermann Hoppe
      Israel Kirzner
      Liberalism in Austria
      List of Austrian scientists
      List of Austrians
      Ludwig von Mises Institute
      Mont Pelerin Society
      Murray Rothbard
      Richard von Mises - Ludwig von Mises' brother
      Karl Polanyi - with whom von Mises debated leading to Polanyi's book The Great Transformation Further reading

Monday, October 29, 2007

Architectural style
Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of form, techniques, materials, time period, region, etc. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture. In architectural history, the study of Gothic architecture, for instance, would include all aspects of the cultural context that went into the design and construction of these structures. Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as Gothic "style".
The Victoria and Albert Museum maintains an interactive online microsite with an introductory overview of ten architectural styles grouped in four clusters:
Architectural style
Modern, High-Tech and Postmodern
East Asian, South Asian and Spanish Islamic
Gothic and Gothic Revival
Classical and Classical Revival. Pre-history to the present

Adam style 1770 England
American Craftsman 1890s–1930 USA, California & east
American Empire (style) 1810
Amsterdam School 1912–1924 Netherlands
Ancient Egyptian architecture 3000 BC–373 AD
Ancient Greek architecture 776 BC-265 BC
Arcology 1970s-present
Art Deco 1925–1940s Europe & USA
Australian architectural styles
Baroque architecture
Bauhaus 1919–1930s
Beaux-Arts architecture
Biedermeier 1815–1848
Blobitecture 2003–today
Brick Gothic c.1350–c.1400
Bristol Byzantine 1850-1880
Brutalist architecture 1950s–1970s
Byzantine architecture 527 (Sofia)-1520
Chicago school (architecture) 1880s and 1890 USA
City Beautiful movement 1890–1900s USA
Classical architecture 600 BC-323 AD
Colonial Revival architecture
Constructivist architecture
Deconstructivism 1982–today
Decorated Period c.1290–c.1350
Early English Period c.1190—c.1250
Egyptian Revival architecture 1809–1820s, 1840s, 1920s
Elizabethan architecture (b.1533 – d.1603)
Empire (style) 1804 to 1814, 1870 revival
English Baroque 1666 (Great Fire)–1713 (Treaty of Utrecht)
Expressionist architecture 1910–ca. 1924
Federal architecture
Futurist architecture 1909 Europe
Georgian architecture
Googie architecture 1950s America
Gothic architecture
Gothic Revival architecture 1760s–1840s
Greek Revival architecture
Heliopolis style 1905–ca. 1935 Egypt
International style (architecture) 1930–today
Italianate 1802
Jacobethan 1838
Jugendstil 1888 to 1911 German Art Nouveau
Manueline 1495 to 1521 (reign)
Mediterranean Revival Style 1920s–1930s USA
Memphis Group 1981-1988
Metabolist Movement 1959 Japan
Mid-century modern 1950s California, etc.
Mission Revival Style architecture 1894-1936
Modern movement 1927–1960s
Modernisme 1888 to 1911 Catalonian Art Nouveau
National Park Service Rustic 1872–1916 USA
Nazi architecture 1933-1944 Germany
Neo-Byzantine architecture 1882–1920s American
Neoclassical architecture
Neo-Grec 1848 and 1865
Neo-gothic architecture
Neolithic architecture 10,000 BC-3000 BC
New towns 1946-1968 United Kingdom
Norman architecture 1074-1250
Palladian architecture 1616–1680 (Jones)
Perpendicular Period c.1350–c.1550
Postmodern architecture 1980s
Prairie Style 1900–1917 USA
Pueblo style 1898-1990s
Queen Anne Style architecture 1870–1910s UK & USA
Queenslander (architecture) 1840s–1960s
Regency architecture
Richardsonian Romanesque 1880s USA
Roman architecture 753 BC–663 AD
Romanesque architecture 1050-1100
Romanesque Revival architecture 1840–1900 USA
Russian architecture 989 - 1700s
Russian Revival 1826 - 1917, 1990s - present
Second Empire 1865 and 1880
Shingle Style or stick style 1879-1905 New England
Sicilian Baroque 1693 earthquake–c.1745
Spanish Colonial Revival style 1915–1940 USA
Spanish Colonial style 1520s–c.1550
Stalinist architecture 1933–1955 USSR
Stick style
Streamline Moderne 1930–1937
Sumerian architecture 5300 BC–2000 BC
Tudor style architecture 1485–1603
Tudorbethan architecture 1835–1885
Ukrainian Baroque late 1600 - 1800s
Usonian 1936–1940s USA
Victorian architecture 1837 and 1901 UK

Sunday, October 28, 2007

The New Eastside is a mixed-use district bordered by Michigan Avenue to the West, the Chicago River to the North, Randolph Street to the South, and Lake Shore Drive to the East. It encompasses the entire Illinois Center and Lakeshore East developments[1], as well as separate developments like Aon Center, Prudential Plaza, Park Millennium Condominium Building, Hyatt Regency Chicago, and the Fairmont Hotel. The area has a triple-level street system and is bisected by Columbus Drive. Most of this district has been developed on land that was once used by the Illinois Central Railroad rail yards. The early buildings in this district such as the Aon Center, One Prudential Plaza were among the first built using airspace rights. They were built above the railyards.
The triple-level street system allows for trucks to mainly travel and make deliveries on the lower levels, keeping traffic to a minimum on the upper levels.
Upcoming buildings include AQUA, part of Lake Shore East, and the Manderin Oriental Hotel & Tower. Construction has begun on both of these projects, with expected completion dates in 2009.
The New Eastside is served by the following Chicago Public Schools campuses: Ogden School and Wells Community Academy High School.

New Eastside
Printer's Row, also known as Printing House Row, is a neighborhood located in the southern portion of the Loop community area of Chicago. It is bounded by Congress Parkway on the north, Polk Street on the south, Plymouth Court on the east, and the Chicago River on the west. The signature street is Dearborn Street where the annual Printer's Row Book Fair [2] is held. Originally, the buildings in this area were used by printing and publishing businesses. Today, the buildings have mainly been converted into residential lofts. Part of Printer's Row is an official landmark district [3].
Printer's Row is zoned to the following Chicago Public Schools campuses: South Loop School and Phillips Academy High School.

Chicago Loop Printer's Row
Most of the area south of Congress Parkway and east of the Chicago River, possibly excepting Printer's Row, is referred to as the South Loop. The southern boundary of the neighborhood is under debate. While the southern boundary for the community area is Roosevelt Road, the term "South Loop" is often used to describe an area that extends as far south as 18th Street or Cermak Road. Numerous shops south of Roosevelt Road with "South Loop" in their name hint that this more generous definition may be gaining recognition.
The more restrictively-defined area includes River City, the northern half of Dearborn Park, and portions of State Street, Wabash Avenue, and Michigan Avenue. The more generous definitions would include the Central Station development, Dearborn Park II, the Prairie District, and even the northern growth of Chinatown.
The major landowner in the South Loop is Columbia College Chicago, a private school that owns 15 buildings. Also to be found here is the National Vietnam Veterans Art Museum, championed by Mayor Daley.
South Loop is zoned to the following Chicago Public Schools campuses: South Loop School and Phillips Academy High School. Jones College Prep High School, which is a selective enrollment magnet school drawing students from the entire city, is also located in the South Loop.
Weather permitting, large scale flea-marketing takes place here.

Chicago Loop South Loop
The Loop also contains the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District, which is the section of Michigan Avenue opposite Grant Park.

Notable landmarks in the Chicago Loop


Saturday, October 27, 2007

Stonea Camp
Stonea Camp is an Iron Age hill fort located near March in the Cambridgeshire Fens. Situated on a gravel bank just 2 metres above sea-level, it is the lowest hill fort in Britain. Around 500 BC, when fortification is thought to have begun at this site, this 'hill' would have provided a significant area of habitable land amidst the flooded marshes of the fens. The site exhibits at least two phases of development over several hundred years of settlement, with a D-shaped set of earth banks surrounded by a larger, more formal set of banks and ditches.

Stonea Camp Roman control
The fort is a possible site of the battle of 47 AD mentioned by Tacitus, between the Iceni tribe and a Roman auxiliary force under governor Ostorius Scapula. Human remains have been found around the site including sword-marked adult bones and the cleaved skull of a child, indicating that the inhabitants were trapped and attacked within the settlement.
The remains of a multi-storey Roman tower have also been excavated within sight to the north of the Stonea Camp fortifications. The building was probably constructed to suppress further tribal rebellion or settlement at this site.

Friday, October 26, 2007

Anders Leonard Zorn
Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860, MoraAugust 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter and printmaker in etching who painted portraits of, among others, three American Presidents, including Grover Cleveland in 1899. The Zorn Collections in Mora (Dalarna, Sweden) is a museum dedicated to the works of Anders Zorn. He has become famous for his nude paintings and vivid depictions of water. Some of Zorn's most important works can be seen at Nationalmuseum (National Museum of Fine Arts) in Stockholm, Sweden. There is also a painting by him at Musée d'Orsay in Paris.

Thursday, October 25, 2007

The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648.
The Catholic Reformation was a comprehensive effort, comprised of five major elements:

  1. Doctrine

  2. Ecclesiastical or Structural Reconfiguration

  3. Religious Orders

  4. Spiritual Movements

  5. Political Dimensions

Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.

Ecclesiastical or Structural Reconfiguration
Religious Orders
Spiritual Movements
Political Dimensions Counter-Reformation "Counter-Reformation" or "Catholic Reformation"

Main article: Council of Trent Reform
New religious orders were a fundamental part of this trend. Orders such as the Capuchins, Ursulines, Theatines, the Barnabites, and especially the Jesuits strengthened rural parishes, improved popular piety, helped to curb corruption within the church, and set examples that would be a strong impetus for Catholic renewal. The Theatines were an order of devoted priests who undertook to check the spread of heresy and contribute to a regeneration of the clergy. The Capuchins, an offshoot of the Franciscan order notable for their preaching and for their care for the poor and the sick, grew rapidly in both size and popularity. The Capuchin fathers were an order based on the imitation of Jesus' life as described by the Gospels. Capuchin-founded confraternities thus took special interest in the poor and lived austere lifestyles. These differing approaches were often complementary, as with the missions to rural areas poorly served by the existing parish structure. Members of orders active in overseas missionary expansionism expressed the view that the rural parishes, whose poor state of affairs contributed to the growth of Protestantism, often needed Christianizing as much as heathens of Asia and the Americas. The Ursulines focused on the special task of educating girls. Their devotion to the traditional works of mercy exemplifies the Catholic Reformations reaffirmation of salvation through faith and works, and firmly repudiated the sola scriptura of the Protestants emphasized by Lutherans and other Protestant sects. Not only did they make the Church more effective, they reaffirmed fundamental premises of the Medieval Church.
However, the Jesuits, founded by the Spanish nobleman and ex-soldier Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), were the most effective of the new Catholic orders. His Societas de Jesus was founded in 1534 and received papal authorization in 1540 under Paul III. An heir to the devotional, observantine, and legalist traditions, the Jesuits organized their order along military lines, they strongly reflected the autocratic zeal of the period. Characterized by careful selection, rigorous training, and iron discipline, the worldliness of the Renaissance Church had no part in the new order. Loyola's masterwork Spiritual Exercises reflected the emphasis of handbooks characteristic of the earlier generation of Catholic reformers before the Reformation. The great psychological penetration that it conveyed was strongly reminiscent of devotionalism. However, the Jesuits are really the heirs to the observantine reform tradition, taking strong monastic vows of chastity, obedience, and poverty and setting an example that improved the effectiveness of the entire Church. They became preachers, confessors to monarchs and princes, and educators reminiscent of the humanist reformers, and their efforts are largely credited with stemming Protestantism in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, southern Germany, France, and the Spanish Netherlands. They also strongly participated in the expansion of the Church in the Americas and Asia, conducting efforts in missionary activity that far outpaced even the aggressive Protestantism of the Calvinists. Even Loyola's biography contributed to the new emphasis on popular piety that had been waning under the eras of politically oriented popes such as Alexander VI and Leo X. After recovering from a severe battle wound, he took a vow to "serve only God and the Roman pontiff, His vicar on earth." Once again, the emphasis on the Pope is a key reaffirmation of the Medieval Church as the Council of Trent firmly defeated all attempts of Conciliarism, the belief that general councils of the church collectively were God's representative on earth, rather than the Pope. Firmly legitimizing the new role of the Pope as an absolute ruler strongly characteristic of the new age of absolutism ushered in by the sixteenth century, the Jesuits strongly contributed to the reinvigoration of the Counter-Reformation Church.

The orders
In addition, between 1512 and the 1560s a movement of evangelical Catholics of high-ranking member of the curia, called Spirituali, actively tried to reform the Church through reform of the individual. This movement was strong and significant era in the Church.

Spiritual Movements
The demand by the Council of Trent for simplicity in music in order that the words might be heard clearly placed a serious stumbling block in the path of the development of polyphony in the mid-16th Century.
The Council, in their Canon on Music to be used for the Mass, stated: All things should indeed be so ordered that the masses, whether they be celebrated with or without singing, may reach tranquilly into the ears and hearts of those who hear them, when everything is executed clearly and at the correct speed. In the case of those masses which are celebrated with singing and with organ, let nothing profane be intermingled, but only hymns and divine praises. The whole plan of singing should be constituted not to give empty pleasure to the ear, but in such a way that the words be clearly understood by all. And thus the hearts of listeners be drawn to desire of heavenly harmonies in the contemplation of the joys of the Blessed. They shall also banish from church all music that contains whether in the singing or in the organ playing things that are lascivious or impure.
While this was worded fairly vaguely, the intent was clear. Complex polyphony was no longer deemed acceptable by the Council.
Palestrina's musical mastery and his skill at word setting greatly affected the outcome of this difficult situation. By composing a six-part polyphonic mass, called the Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass), of 1555, Palestrina demonstrated that polyphony was compatible with the mandates of the Counter-Reformation. Using an economy of notes, the mass setting conveys its words with surprising clarity. This represented a marked shift from the composer's earlier compositions, which often paired a single syllable with long strings of notes, called melismas, which obscured the text. The new, tighter style (which did occasionally resort to homophony) was both shorter and more comprehensible to the worshipper. The Pope Marcellus Mass was believed since the late 16th century to have been instrumental in preventing the abolition of polyphony. Recent scholarship, however, shows that this mass was composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban (possibly as much as ten years before). The mass was not, therefore, solely responsible for "saving" Catholic church music, as is sometimes claimed. Still, Palestrina's music would become the model for future generations of Catholic composers, and it continues to be held as an exemplar for polyphonic clarity.
Like Palestrina, the Netherlandish composer Jacob de Kerle (1531/32-1591) also demonstrated to Council delegates that polyphony was capable of projecting the words in a coherent manner. It is quite possible that Kerle, not Palestrina, should be credited as the first "savior" of polyphony. Another composer, Vincenzo Ruffo (c. 1508-1587), also complied with the reforms of the Council of Trent. Ruffo devoted himself entirely to sacred music in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. Ruffo, however, took a different approach by dispensing with polyphony in favor of composing chordal, or homophonic, mass settings. Later in life, he apparently grew dissatisfied with homophony and returned to polyphony.
After all of the debate during the third meeting of the Council of Trent, the council's solutions gave composers very little room for artistic expression. Composers such as Palestrina and Lasso would find other ways of expressing their sacred themes during the Counter-Reformation.
The Council of Trent brought about other changes in music: most notably developing the Missa Brevis, Lauda and "Spiritual Madrigal" (Madrigali Spirituali).

The inadvertent start of the scientific revolution

Pius II (1503)
Paul III (1534-1549)
Julius III (1550-55)
Paul IV (1555-59)
Pius IV (1559-65)
St. Pius V (1566-72)
Gregory XIII (1572-85)
Sixtus V (1585-90)
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Teresa of Avila
St. John of the Cross
St. Francis de Sales

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

- total - % water
- 25,700 km²Tula Oblast -
- Total - Density
- est. 1,675,758 (2002) - est. 65/km²
Tula Oblast (Russian: Ту́льская о́бласть, Tulskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) with its present borders formed on September 26, 1937. Its administrative center is the city of Tula. It has an area of 25,700 km² and a population of 1,675,758 (2002 Census). The oblast's current governor is Vyacheslav Dudka.
For a sketch on its early history, see Upper Oka Principalities.

Tula Oblast is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).

Time zone
Tula Oblast contains more than 1,600 rivers and streams. Major rivers include:

Don River
Oka River
Upa River Rivers
The oblast is rich in iron ore, clay, limestone, and deposits of lignite (coal). The lignite deposit is part of the Moscow coal basin.

Tula Oblast Natural resources
Tula Oblast has a moderate continental climate.

Average temperature in January: −5.7°С
Average temperature in June: +19.1°С
Average Annual Precipitation: 470-575 mm Administrative divisions
According to the 2002 census, ethnic Russians at 1,595,564 make up 95% of the population. Other prominent ethnicities in the region include Ukrainians at 22,260 (1.3%), and Tatars at 8,968 (.5%). The rest of the residents identified themselves with 120 different ethnic groups, each group accounting for less than .5% of the population.
Birth Rate: 7.88 (2004), being the lowest in Russia. Decreased to 7.6 in mid-2006. Birth rate was 7.9 in the first half of 2007. [1]

Population: 1,675,758(2002)

  • Urban: 1,366,818 (81.6%)
    Rural: 308,940 (18.4%)
    Males: 755,057 (45.1%)
    Females: 920,701 (54.9%)
    Females per 1000 Males: 1219
    Average age : 41.7 years

    • Urban : 41.5 years
      Rural : 42.8 years
      Male : 37.8 years
      Female : 44.9 years Economy
      Tula's dominant religions are Orthodox Christianity and atheism.
      Tula Oblast has as many as 32 museums. Several are located in the administrative center of the oblast, the city of Tula, notably the Tula State Arms Museum, the Tula Kremlin, and the Tula Samovar Museum . Another important cultural tourist attractions is the home and country estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, located 12 km outside of the city of Tula.
      The region also has four professional theaters, a philharmonic orchestra, and a circus.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

For the pathway in London, see Rotten Row.
Rottenrow is a famous street in the city of Glasgow in Scotland. It is located in the northern periphery of the city centre.
Rottenrow dates back to the city's medieval beginnings, and once connected the historic High Street to the northern reaches of what is now the Cowcaddens area. The origins of the street's name is subject to debate - some historians claim that it comes from the fact that the area was originally used as a dumping ground for refuse and sewage by the Glaswegians of the period. Others believe that it is derived from the Gaelic phrase Rat-an-righ, which translates as "Road Of The Kings" - presumably in relation to its close proximity to Glasgow Cathedral.
The street became dissected and realigned by the exponential growth of Glasgow's city centre during the Industrial Revolution, and then by the rapid development of the campus of the University of Strathclyde in the 1960s and 1970s.
Rottenrow is best known however as the address of the Glasgow Royal Maternity Hospital (usually nicknamed by locals simply as "The Rottenrow"), founded in 1834, and became a world-renowned centre of excellence in gynecology for over 100 years.
However the Maternity Hospital building had become inadequate for modern requirements by the end of the 20th century, and had fallen into a state of serious disrepair. In 2001, the hospital moved into a state-of-the-art extension to nearby Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and the building was purchased by the University of Strathclyde and subsequently demolished.
The site was redeveloped by the University into a public park designed by Gross Max landscape architects. Known as Rottenrow Gardens, the centrepiece of the park is George Wyllie's 'Monument to Maternity', a sculpture depicting a giant metal nappy (i.e. diaper) pin. The front and side porticos, foundation and basement walls of the Maternity Hospital were preserved, and incorporated into the design of the park. Rottenrow Gardens was officially opened in 2004. Some elements of the park will be permanent, others being temporary in anticipation of future Strathclyde campus expansion and renewal.

Monday, October 22, 2007

Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by United States President George W. Bush. It takes as lead values personal responsibility, economic liberty, and the owning of property. The ownership society discussed by Bush also extends to certain proposals of specific models of health care and social security.

Ownership society History
As formulated by the Cato Institute (see original quote and external link below), the desiderata are that
Here the comments in brackets are an interpretation or paraphrase, consistent with a generalised idea of ownership. The conceptual link here is by means of the idea that private property, the most familiar and everyday form of ownership, is being extended. Control is closely associated with ownership in that sense.
This Cato Institute formulation is not, however, in terms of positive policies. It is more accurately a definition of ownership by taking the state out of the loop. So, for example, in health care ownership is not being defined just on the basis of informed consent.
There is no real originality, politically speaking, in the connection made between individual ownership of property and political stake-holding. This was an idea discussed in Europe and America in the eighteenth century. (For example that the franchise should only be for property holders.)
The novelty of the Cato Institute formulation would lie in the extrapolation. In the case of savings, for example, the extension would be an assertion of property rights in money held in savings or collected tax revenues.

patients have control of [decisions on] their personal health care,
parents control [i.e. have power over] their children's education, and
workers control [i.e. have some responsibility for the investment of, or explicit property rights in] their retirement savings.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Hel Peninsula
Hel Peninsula (listen ; Polish: Mierzeja Helska; Kashubian: Hélskô Sztremlëzna; German: Halbinsel Hela or Putziger Nehrung) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea. It is located in Puck County of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Hel Peninsula Military importance
During an episode of the cartoon Metalocalypse, members of the band Dethklok perform a concert near the Hel Peninsula.

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Nominative case
The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. (Basically, it is a noun that is doing something, usually joined (such as in Latin) with the accusative case.)

The nominative case is the usual, natural form (more technically, the least marked) of certain parts of speech, such as nouns, adjectives, pronouns and less frequently numerals and participles, and sometimes does not indicate any special relationship with other parts of speech. Therefore, in some languages the nominative case is unmarked, that is, the nominative word is the base form or stem, with no inflection; alternatively, it may said to be marked by a zero morpheme. Moreover, in most languages with a nominative case, the nominative form is the lemma; that is, it is the one used to cite a word, to list it as a dictionary entry, etc.
Nominative cases are found in Latin, Icelandic and Old English, among other languages. English still retains some nominative pronouns, as opposed to the accusative case or oblique case: I (accusative, me), we (accusative, us), he (accusative, him), she (accusative, her) and they (accusative, them). An archaic usage is the singular second-person pronoun thou (accusative thee). A special case is the word you: Originally ye was its nominative form and you the accusative, but over time you has come to be used for the nominative as well.
The term "nominative case" is most properly used in the discussion of nominative-accusative languages, such as Latin, Greek, and most modern Western European languages. Some writers of English employ the term "subjective case" instead of nominative, in order to draw attention to the differences between the "standard" generic nominative and the way it is used in English.
In active-stative languages there is a case sometimes called nominative which is the most marked case, and is used for the subject of a transitive verb or a voluntary subject of an intransitive verb, but not for an involuntary subject of an intransitive verb; since such languages are a relatively new field of study, there is no standard name for this case.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Companies Act 1985
The Companies Act 1985 (1985 c. 6) is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament enacted in 1985 which sets out the responsibilities of companies, their directors and secretaries. The Act was a consolidation of various other pieces of company legislation, yet it is just one component of the rules governing companies in England and Wales. A company will also be governed by its own Memorandum and Articles of Association. Where a company's Articles do not provide otherwise, the so called 'Table A Regulations' (Companies (Tables A to F) Regulations 1985) will apply. The common law also has a role to play, particularly in respect of directors' duties to the company.
The Act only applies to companies incorporated under it. Sole Traders, Partnerships, Limited Liability Partnerships and the like are not governed by the Act.
Company law in England and Wales is to be reformed by the Companies Act 2006 which received Royal Assent on 8 November 2006, but most of whose provisions are not yet in force. It is intended that all parts of the Act will be in force by October 2008. Provisions on company communications to shareholders and others will be in force as early as January 2007, driven by the considerable cost savings for businesses which they represent. The new Act will codify and clarify areas of common law affecting companies and ease the legislative burden on private companies. The Table A Regulations will be replaced by Model Articles.

Thursday, October 18, 2007

Display advertising Interactive advertising Email marketing Web analytics Cost Per Action Revenue sharing Contextual advertising Search engine optimization Social media optimizationPay-per-click Pay Per Click advertising Paid inclusion Pay per click (PPC) is an advertising model used on search engines, advertising networks, and content websites, where advertisers only pay when a user actually clicks on an ad to visit the advertiser's website. Advertisers bid on keywords they believe their target market would type in the search bar when they are looking for a product or service. When a user types a keyword query matching the advertiser's keyword list, or views a page with relevant content, the advertiser's ad may be shown. These ads are called a "Sponsored link" or "sponsored ads" and appear next to, and sometimes, above the natural or organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a webmaster chooses on a content page. Pay per click advertising is a search engine marketing technique.
Pay per click ads may also appear on content network websites. In this case, ad networks such as Google Adsense and Yahoo! Publisher Network attempt to provide ads that are relevant to the content of the page where they appear, and no search function is involved.
While many companies exist in this space, Google AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing, and MSN adCenter are the largest network operators as of 2007. Depending on the search engine, minimum prices per click start at US$0.01 (up to US$0.50). Very popular search terms can cost much more on popular engines. Arguably this advertising model may be open to abuse through click fraud, although Google and other search engines have implemented automated systems to guard against this.

Advertisers using these bid on "keywords", which can be words or phrases, and can include product model numbers. When a user searches for a particular word or phrase, the list of advertiser links appears in order of the amount bid. Keywords, also referred to as search terms, are the very heart of pay per click advertising. The terms are guarded as highly valued trade secrets by the advertisers, and many firms offer software or services to help advertisers develop keyword strategies. Content Match, will distribute the keyword ad to the search engine's partner sites and/or publishers that have distribution agreements with the search engine company.
As of 2007, notable PPC Keyword search engines include: Google AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing, Microsoft adCenter, Ask, LookSmart, Miva, Kanoodle, Yandex and Baidu.

Keyword PPCs
"Product" engines let advertisers provide "feeds" of their product databases and when users search for a product, the links to the different advertisers for that particular product appear, giving more prominence to advertisers who pay more, but letting the user sort by price to see the lowest priced product and then click on it to buy. These engines are also called Product comparison engines or Price comparison engines.
Some Online Comparison Shopping engines such as Shopping.com use a PPC model and have a defined rate card.
Noteworthy PPC Product search engines include: Shopzilla, NexTag, and Shopping.com.

Online Comparison Shopping Engines
"Service" engines let advertisers provide feeds of their service databases and when users search for a service offering links to advertisers for that particular service appear, giving prominence to advertisers who pay more, but letting users sort their results by price or other methods. Some Product PPCs have expanded into the service space while other service engines operate in specific verticals.
Noteworthy PPC services include NexTag, SideStep, and TripAdvisor.


Internet marketing
Online advertising
Compensation methods
CTR - Click-through rate
CPM - Cost Per Mille
eCPM - Effective Cost Per Mille
CPT - Cost per thousand
CPI - Cost Per Impression
PPC - Pay per click
CPA - Cost Per Action
CPC - Cost Per Click
eCPA - effective Cost Per Action
Ad serving
Search engine marketing
Search engine optimization

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

What is it?
The Ultimate++ project was begun in 1998 by its authors and current maintainers Mirek Fidler and Tomáš Rylek from the Czech Republic as a result of several major dissatisfactions with:
The first Ultimate++ classes were in part a supplement to MS MFC for Oracle GUI applications and in part a replacement for STL containers called NTL; successive development has created a layered structure of more genaral libraries, with significant rewriting over the years.
The official web site defines Ultimate++ a "cross-platform rapid application development suite focused on programmers productivity"; Ultimate++ authors seem to value simple and terse application code over flexibility, as demonstrated by the proud comparisons with other GUI toolkits.

Oracle Forms;
C++ STL library containers (see a design rationale document);
value transfer semantics in C++ (see another design rationale document); Container and foundation libraries

GUI toolkit and RAD tool
(macro GUI_APP_MAIN hides platform specific differences).

Minimal U++ GUI "Hello world" application:
More complex example:
Use of members instead of pointers:
Dialogue templates are C++ templates: U++ GUI code examples
Programs created with Ultimate++ can be compiled and run on various operating systems:

Microsoft Windows: Mature (the original platform)
Linux, FreeBSD: Stable, less mature
Windows CE: Still experimental
Mac OS: incomplete Cross Platform
U++ widgets are emulated; Chameleon is the painting (skinning) mechanism which allows adjustment of a widget's look (skin). Chameleon can also detect and emulate the operating system or platform's look and feel (or "theme").

Ultimate++ Structure and features of Ultimate++ TheIDE

U++ Overview
U++ GUI Tutorial
NTL tutorial
U++ List of Packages
Standard widgets

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Algeria Australia Austria Belarus Bhutan Canada PR ChinaCensorship Cuba East Germany France Germany India Iran Italy Republic of Ireland Israel Japan Malaysia Myanmar Pakistan Poland Portugal Samoa Saudi Arabia Singapore South Asia North Korea Soviet Union Sweden Taiwan (R.O.C.) Thailand Tunisia Turkey United Kingdom United States Advertisements Anime Books Banned films Re-edited films Internet Music Video games MTV
Book burning Bleep censor Content-control software Corporate censorship Under fascist regimes Pixelization Political censorship Postal censorship Prior restraint In religion Self-censorship Tape delay Whitewashing Censorship is defined as the removal and/or withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body.
Typically censorship is done by governments, religious groups or the mass media, although other forms of censorship exist. The withholding of official secrets, commercial secrets, intellectual property, and privileged lawyer-client communication is not usually described as censorship when it remains within reasonable bounds. Because of this, the term "censorship" often carries with it a sense of untoward, inappropriate or repressive secrecy.
Censorship is closely related to the concepts of freedom of speech and freedom of expression. When overused, it is often associated with human rights abuse, dictatorship, and repression.
The term "censorship" is often used as a pejorative term to signify a belief that a group controlling certain information is using this control improperly or for its own benefit, or preventing others from accessing information that should be made readily accessible (often so that conclusions drawn can be verified).

Aspects of censorship
The rationale for censorship is different for various types of data censored. There are five main types:

Moral censorship is the means by which any material that contains what the censor deems to be of questionable morality is removed. The censoring body disapproves of what it deems to be the values behind the material and limits access to it. Pornography, for example, is often censored under this rationale. In another example, graphic violence resulted in the censorship of the 1932 "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" movie entitled "Scarface" originally completed in 1930.
Military censorship is the process of keeping military intelligence and tactics confidential and away from the enemy. This is used to counter espionage, which is the process of gleaning military information. Additionally, military censorship may involve a restriction on information or media coverage that can be released to the public such as in Iraq, where the U.S. government restricts the photographing or filming of dead soldiers or their caskets and its subsequent broadcast in the U.S. This is done to avoid public reaction similar to that which occurred during the Vietnam War or the Iran Hostage Crisis. This is also considered acceptable by even democratic governments as necessary for the preservation of national security.
Political censorship occurs when governments are holding back secret information from their citizens. The logic is to prevent the free expression needed to revolt. Democracies do not officially approve of political censorship but often endorse it privately. Any dissent against the government is thought to be a "weakness" for the enemy to exploit. Campaign tactics are also often kept secret: see the Watergate scandal.
Religious censorship is the means by which any material objectionable to a certain faith is removed. This often involves a dominant religion forcing limitations on less dominant ones. Alternatively, one religion may shun the works of another when they believe the content is not appropriate for their faith.
Corporate censorship is the process by which editors in corporate media outlets intervene to halt the publishing of information that portrays their business or business partners in a negative light. Privately owned corporations in the business of reporting the news also sometimes refuse to distribute information due to the potential loss of advertiser revenue or shareholder value which adverse publicity may bring. See Media Bias. By subject matter and agenda
In wartime, explicit censorship is carried out with the intent of preventing the release of information that might be useful to an enemy. Typically it involves keeping times or locations secret, or delaying the release of information (e.g., an operational objective) until it is of no possible use to enemy forces. The moral issues here are often seen as somewhat different, as release of tactical information usually presents a greater risk of casualties among one's own forces and could possibly lead to loss of the overall conflict. During World War I letters written by British soldiers would have to go through censorship. This consisted of officers going through letters with a black marker and crossing out anything which might compromise operational secrecy before the letter was sent. The World War II catchphrase "Loose lips sink ships" was used as a common justification to exercise official wartime censorship and encourage individual restraint when sharing potentially sensitive information.
A well-known example of sanitization policies comes from the USSR under Josef Stalin, where publicly used photographs were often altered to remove people whom Stalin had condemned to execution. Though past photographs may have been remembered or kept, this deliberate and systematic alteration to all of history in the public mntral themes of Stalinism and totalitarianism. More recently, the official exclusion of television crews from locales where coffins of military dead were in transit has been cited as a form of censorship. This particular example obviously represents an incomplete or failed form of censorship, as numerous photographs of these coffins are often printed in newspapers, magazines, and on the web.

Censorship of state secrets and prevention of attention
The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, since their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is the one commonly used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment. The reporting of military atrocities in history is extremely controversial, as in the case of the Nanking Massacre, the Holocaust (or Holocaust denial), and the Winter Soldier Investigation of the Vietnam War. The representation of every society's flaws or misconduct is typically downplayed in favor of a more nationalist, favorable or patriotic view.
Also, some religious groups have at times attempted to block the teaching of evolution in schools, as evolutionary theory appears to contradict their religious beliefs. The teaching of sexual education in school and the inclusion of information about sexual health and contraceptive practices in school textbooks is another area where suppression of information occurs.
In the context of secondary-school education, the way facts and history are presented greatly influences the interpretation of contemporary thought, opinion and socialization. One argument for censoring the type of information disseminated is based on the inappropriate quality of such material for the young. The use of the "inappropriate" distinction is in itself controversial, as it can lead to a slippery slope enforcing wider and more politically-motivated censorship. Some artists such as Frank Zappa helped in the protest against censorship. Although they usually failed, they did put up an argument against the censorship of other material.
An example of such censorship is, ironically, Fahrenheit 451. The book was themed against censorship, but changed heavily. The version that appeared in school English textbooks

Censorship of educational sources
For more information, see the article on scientific misconduct.
Scientific studies may be suppressed or falsified because they undermine sponsors' commercial, political or other interests or because they fail to support researchers' ideological goals. Examples include, failing to publish a study that show a new drug is harmful, or truthfully publishing the benefits of a treatment while failing to describe harmful side-effects.

Suppression/falsification of scientific research
American musicians such as Frank Zappa have repeatedly protested against censorship in music and pushed for more freedom of expression. In 1986, Zappa appeared on CNN Crossfire to protest censorship of lyrics in rock music, saying that harm will be done or unrest caused if controversial information, lyrics, or other messages are promulgated.
In countries like Sudan, Afghanistan and China, violations of musician's rights to freedom of expression are commonplace. In the USA and Algeria, lobbying groups have succeeded in keeping popular music off the concert stage, and out of the media and retail. In ex-Yugoslavia musicians are often pawns in political dramas, and the possibility of free expression has been adversely affected.
Music censorship has been implemented by states, religions, educational systems, families, retailers and lobbying groups – and in most cases they violate international conventions of human rights.

Censorship in music and popular culture
Copy approval is the right to read and amend an article, usually an interview, before publication. Many publications refuse to give copy approval but it is increasingly becoming common practice when dealing with publicity anxious celebrities.

Copy, picture, and writer approval
Censorship is regarded among a majority of academics in the Western world as a typical feature of dictatorships and other authoritarian political systems. Democratic nations are represented, especially among Western government, academic and media commentators, as having somewhat less institutionalized censorship, and as instead promoting the importance of freedom of speech. The former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics maintained a particularly extensive program of state-imposed censorship. The main organ for official censorship in the Soviet Union was the Chief Agency for Protection of Military and State Secrets generally known as the Glavlit, its Russian acronym. The Glavlit handled censorship matters arising from domestic writings of just about any kind — even beer and vodka labels. Glavlit censorship personnel were present in every large Soviet publishing house or newspaper; the agency employed some 70,000 censors to review information before it was disseminated by publishing houses, editorial offices, and broadcasting studios. No mass medium escaped Glavlit's control. All press agencies and radio and television stations had Glavlit representatives on their editorial staffs.
Some thinkers understand censorship to include other attempts to suppress points of view or the exploitation of negative propaganda, media manipulation, spin, disinformation or "free speech zones." These methods tend to work by disseminating preferred information, by relegating open discourse to marginal forums, and by preventing other ideas from obtaining a receptive audience.
Sometimes, a specific and unique information whose very existence is barely known to the public, is kept in a subtle, near-censorship situation, being regarded as "subversive" or "inconvenient". Michel Foucault's 1978 text Sexual Morality and the Law, for instance - originally published as La loi de la pudeur [literally, 'the law of decency'], defends the decriminalization of statutory rape and the abolition of age of consent laws, and as of July 2006, is almost totally invisible throughout the Internet, both in English and French, and does not appear even on Foucault-specialized websites.
Suppression of access to the means of dissemination of ideas can function as a form of censorship. Such suppression has been alleged to arise from the policies of governmental bodies, such as the FCC in the United States of America, the CRTC in Canada, newspapers that refuse to run commentary the publisher disagrees with, lecture halls that refuse to rent themselves out to a particular speaker, and individuals who refuse to finance such a lecture. The omission of selected voices in the content of stories also serves to limit the spread of ideas, and is often called censorship. Such omission can result, for example, from persistent failure or refusal by media organizations to contact criminal defendants (relying solely on official sources for explanations of crime). Censorship has been alleged to occur in such media policies as blurring the boundaries between hard news and news commentary, and in the appointment of allegedly biased commentators, such as a former government attorney, to serve as anchors of programs labeled as hard news but comprising primarily anti-criminal commentary.
The focusing of news stories to exclude questions that might be of interest to some audience segments, such as the avoidance of reporting cumulative casualty rates among citizens of a nation that is the target or site of a foreign war, is often described as a form of censorship. Favorable representation in news or information services of preferred products or services, such as reporting on leisure travel and comparative values of various machines instead of on leisure activities such as arts, crafts or gardening has been described by some as a means of censoring ideas about the latter in favor of the former.
Self-censorship: Imposed on the media in a free market by market/cultural forces rather than a censoring authority. This occurs when it is more profitable for the media to give a biased view. Examples would include near hysterical and scientifically untenable stances against nuclear power, genetic engineering and recreational drugs distributed because scare stories sell. It also occurs when politicians/culture expect the media to give moral guidance - i.e., not publishing the cartoon depictions of Muhammed.
Informations about censorship: In many communist countries any information about existence of censorship and the legal basis of the censorship was censored. Rules of censoring were classified. Removed texts or phrases were not marked.
Creative censorship: In many communist countries censors not only removed texts but sometimes rewrote them, so some texts had secret co-authors.

Censorship implementation

Censorship by country

Main article: Censorship in the United States United States
Google Earth censors places which may be of special security concern. The following is a selection of such concerns:

The former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam had expressed concern over the availability of high-resolution pictures of sensitive locations in India.
Indian Space Research Organization says, Google Earth poses security threat to India and seeks dialogue with Google officials.
The South Korean government has expressed concern that the software offers images of the presidential palace and various military installations that could possibly be used by their hostile neighbor North Korea.
In 2006, one user spotted a large topographical replica in a remote region of China. The model is purportedly a small-scale (1/500) version of the Karakoram Mountain Range, currently under the control of India. When later confirmed as a replica of this region, spectators began entertaining sinister military implications.
Operators of the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor in Sydney, Australia asked Google to censor high resolution pictures of the facility. However, they later withdrew the request.
The government of Israel also expressed concern over the availability of high-resolution pictures of sensitive locations in its territory that was stolen from the Palestinians, and applied pressure to have Israeli territory (and the Occupied Territories held by Israeli forces) appear in less clear detail. Map Imagery
Companies responsible for the access to the Internet in Brazil, such as Brasil Telecom and Telefonica, initially accepted the judicial order readily, and hindered access to the site with the offending videos. Due to the great displeasure regarding the decision in the community, authorities rescinded their order the following day, and Youtube.com was once again widely available to computer users in Brazil.

Censorship in the Internet - In 8 of January 2007, Brazilian authorities tried to censor the site YouTube due to a video of scenes of sex between the model Daniela Cicarelli and her boyfriend Renato Malzoni, filmed by a paparazzo on a beach in Spain. Censorship around the world
Banned books, Banned films, Censorship of music
Corporate media, Re-edited film
Criticism of Wikipedia (Censorship section), Video game controversy

Censorship of media
Advertising regulation, Corporate censorship
Censorship by organized religion, Postal censorship, Censorship under fascist regimes, Internet censorship

Other types of censorship
Anthony Comstock (Comstock Law), Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England, Autocensorship, Bleep censor, Book burning, Book banning, the Censored Eleven (banned Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons), Censorware, Chilling effect, Cindy's Torment, Comics Code Authority, Content-control software, Death Whoop, Edited movie, Elsebeth Baumgartner, Entertainment Software Rating Board, Fahrenheit 451, Freemuse - Freedom of Musical Expression, Freedom of speech
Gatekeeper (politics), Graffiti Blasters, Index Librorum Prohibitorum of The Roman Catholic Church, International Freedom of Expression eXchange, Jack Thompson, John Stuart Mill, Lady Chatterley's Lover, Leland Yee, Media controversy, Media transparency, MPAA rating system, NEA Four, Network neutrality, Nineteen Eighty-Four, Police state, Prior restraint, Production Code, Project Censored
Scieno Sitter, SourceWatch, Standards & Practices, Parents Television Council, Super Bowl XXXVIII controversy, Thomas Bowdler, Tunisia Monitoring Group, TV Parental Guidelines, V-chip, Mary Whitehouse, Whitewashing, Obscurantism

Citations and notes
(Arguing that an English teacher should get advice from school librarians in preparing to encounter three levels of censorship:

Abbott, Randy. "A Critical Analysis of the Library-Related Literature Concerning Censorship in Public Libraries and Public School Libraries in the United States During the 1980s." Project for degree of Education Specialist, University of South Florida, December 1987. ED 308 864
Burress, Lee. Battle of the Books. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. ED 308 508
Butler, Judith, "Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative" (1997)
Foucault, Michel, edited by Lawrence D. Kritzman. Philosophy, Culture: interviews and other writings 1977-1984 (New York/London: 1988, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-90082-4) [[The text Sexual Morality and the Law is Chapter 16 of the book]]
O'Reilly, Robert C. and Larry Parker. "Censorship or Curriculum Modification?" Paper presented at a School Boards Association, 1982, 14 p. ED 226 432
Hansen, Terry. The Missing Times: News media complicity in the UFO cover-up, 2000. ISBN 0-7388-3612-5
Hendrikson, Leslie. "Library Censorship: ERIC Digest No. 23." ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, Colorado, November 1985. ED 264 165
Hoffman, Frank. "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship." Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. ED 307 652
Marek, Kate. "Schoolbook Censorship USA." June 1987. ED 300 018
National Coalition against Censorship (NCAC). "Books on Trial: A Survey of Recent Cases." January 1985. ED 258 597
Small, Robert C., Jr. "Preparing the New English Teacher to Deal with Censorship, or Will I Have to Face it Alone?" Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English, 1987, 16 p.
Rejection of adolescent fiction and popular teen magazines as having low value,
Experienced colleagues discouraging "difficult" lesson plans,
Outside interest groups limiting students' exposure. ED 289 172)
Terry, John David II. "Censorship: Post Pico." In "School Law Update, 1986," edited by Thomas N. Jones and Darel P. Semler. ED 272 994
[1] Supreme Court rejects advocates' plea to preserve useful formats
World Book Encyclopedia, volume 3 (C-Ch), pages 345, 346