Friday, November 30, 2007


Cotroceni Palace Museum (Muzeul Naţional Cotroceni)
George Enescu Museum
Grigore Antipa Museum of Natural History
History and Art Museum (Palatul Şuţu)
Romanian National History Museum
Jewish History Museum
Military Museum
Museum of Art Collections
Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul Ţăranului Român)
National Museum of Art (Muzeul Naţional de Artă)
Theodor Aman Museum
Theodor Pallady Museum
Village Museum (Muzeul Satului)
Zambaccian Museum Museums
Public Universities and Colleges:
Source: the Law on the Organization of the Education and Research Ministry [1].

National Academy of Sports (Academia Naţională de Educaţie Fizică şi Sport)
Academy of Economic Studies (Academia de Studii Economice)
Architecture Institute (Institutul de Arhitectură Ion Mincu)
Microtechnology Institute (Institutul de Microtehnologie)
University of Bucharest (Universitatea Bucureşti)
Polytechnic University of Bucharest (Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti)
Technical University of Construction (Universitatea Tehnică de Construcţii)
Carol Davila Medicine and Pharmacy University (Universitatea de Medicină şi Farmacie Carol Davila)
University of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară)
Music University (Universitatea de Muzică)
Art University (Universitatea de Arte)
University of Theatrical Art and Filmmaking (Universitatea de Artă Teatrală şi Cinematografică "Ion Luca Caragiale")
National School for Political and Administrative Studies (Şcoala Naţională de Studii Politice şi Administrative) List of buildings in Bucharest Colleges and universities

Bucharest Mall
Casa Presei Libere
National Military Center (Cercul Militar Naţional)
Creţulescu Palace
Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului)
Palace Casino
Pasajul Macca-Vilacrosse
ruins of the Old Court (Curtea Veche)
Central University Library of Bucharest (Biblioteca Centrală Universitară) Other public Buildings

Act Theater (Teatrul Act)
C. Tănase Theater (Teatrul C. Tănase), home of a satirical revue
Casandra Theater Studio (Studioul Casandra), student theater
Comedy Theater (Teatrul de Comedie)
Excelsior Theater (Teatrul Excelsior)
Green Hours Theater (Teatrul Luni de la Green Hours)
Hanul cu Tei Theater
Ion Creangă Theater (a puppet theater)
Bulandra Theatre
Nottara Theater (Teatrul Nottara)
Odeon Theatre
Operetta (Teatrul Naţional de Operetă)
National Theatre Bucharest (Teatrul Naţional I.L. Caragiale)
Small Theater (Teatrul Mic)
Ţăndărică Theater (a puppet theater)
Theatrum Mundi
Union Theater
State Jewish Theater (Teatrul Evreiesc de Stat)
Very Small Theater (Teatrul Foarte Mic) Theaters

Radio Hall (Sala Radio)
Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român)
Romanian National Opera (Opera Română) Hotels
This is not a comprehensive list of restaurants in Bucharest, only those of architectural or historic significance.

Amsterdam Grand Café
Bistro Atheneu
Caru' cu Bere
Casa Capşa
Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc)

Thursday, November 29, 2007

Cantonese Wikipedia
The Cantonese Wikipedia is the Cantonese language edition of Wikipedia, run by the Wikimedia Foundation. Started in 25 March 2006, the Cantonese Wikipedia has, as of May 2007, over 3,300 articles, and over 2,000 users.
Cantonese is one of the five regional Chinese tongues to have its own Wikipedia. The other four are: Minnan Wikipedia (Main Page), Mindong Wikipedia (Main Page), Wu Wikipedia (Main Page), and Hakka Wikipedia (Main Page).
Currently, it has 11 administrators in the Cantonese Wikipedia.

Cantonese Wikipedia See also

Chinese Wikipedia

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Henri-Louis Bergson (IPA: [bɛʁkˈsɔn]; October 18, 1859January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century.

Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house). He was descended from a Polish Jewish family (originally Berekson) on his father's side, while his mother was from an English and Irish Jewish background. His family lived in London for a few years after his birth, and he obtained an early familiarity with the English language from his mother. Before he was nine, his parents crossed the English Channel and settled in France, Henri becoming a naturalized citizen of the Republic. His sister, Mina Bergson (also known as Moina Mathers), married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a leader of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and the couple later relocated to Paris as well.
Bergson lived the quiet life of a French professor. Its chief landmarks were the publication of his four principal works: in 1889, Time and Free Will (Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience); in 1896, Matter and Memory (Matière et mémoire); in 1907, Creative Evolution (L'Evolution créatrice); and in 1932, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion).

Bergson attended the Lycée Fontaine (now known as the Lycée Condorcet) in Paris from 1868 to 1878. While there he won a prize for his scientific work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen, for the solution of a mathematical problem. His solution was published the following year in Annales de Mathématiques. It was his first published work. After some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, and when he was nineteen, he entered the famous École Normale Supérieure. He obtained there the degree of Licence-ès-Lettres, and this was followed by that of Agrégation de philosophie in 1881 .
The same year he received a teaching appointment at the Lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, capital of the Puy-de-Dôme département, a town whose name is usually more of interest for motorists than for philosophers, being the home of Michelin tyres and the Charade Circuit racing track.
The year after his arrival at Clermont-Ferrand Bergson displayed his ability in the humanities by the publication of an excellent edition of extracts from Lucretius, with a critical study of the text and the philosophy of the poet (1884), a work whose repeated editions are sufficient evidence of its useful place in the promotion of classical study among the youth of France. While teaching and lecturing in this part of his country (the Auvergne region), Bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free Will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle, for his doctoral degree which was awarded by the University of Paris in 1889. The work was published in the same year by Felix Alcan, the Paris publisher.
Bergson dedicated Time and Free Will to Jules Lachelier, then public education minister, who was a disciple of Felix Ravaisson and the author of a rather important philosophical work On the Founding of Induction (Du fondement de l'induction, 1871). Lachelier endeavoured "to substitute everywhere force for inertia, life for death, and liberty for fatalism." (Lachelier was born in 1832, Ravaisson in 1813 . Bergson owed much to both of these teachers of the Ecole Normale Supérieure. Cf. his memorial address on Ravaisson, who died in 1900 .)
Bergson settled again in Paris, and after teaching for some months at the Municipal College, known as the College Rollin, he received an appointment at the Lycée Henri-Quatre, where he remained for eight years. In 1896 he published his second large work, entitled Matter and Memory. This rather difficult, but brilliant, work investigates the function of the brain, undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. This is especially obvious in Matter and Memory, where he showed a thorough acquaintance with the extensive pathological investigations which had been carried out during the period.
In 1898 Bergson became Maître de conférences at his Alma Mater, L'Ecole Normale Supérieure, and was later promoted to a Professorship. The year 1900 saw him installed as Professor at the Collège de France, where he accepted the Chair of Greek Philosophy in succession to Charles L'Eveque.
At the First International Congress of Philosophy, held in Paris during the first five days of August, 1900, Bergson read a short, but important, paper, "Psychological Origins of the Belief in the Law of Causality" (Sur les origines psychologiques de notre croyance à la loi de causalité). In 1901 Felix Alcan published a work which had previously appeared in the Revue de Paris, entitled Laughter (Le rire), one of the most important of Bergson's minor productions. This essay on the meaning of comedy was based on a lecture which he had given in his early days in the Auvergne. The study of it is essential to an understanding of Bergson's views of life, and its passages dealing with the place of the artistic in life are valuable. The main thesis of the work is that laughter is a corrective evolved to make social life possible for human beings. We laugh at people who fail to adapt to the demands of society, if it seems their failure is akin to an inflexible mechanism. Comic authors have exploited this human tendency to laugh in various ways, and what is common to them is the idea that the comic consists in there being "something mechanical encrusted on the living".
In 1901 Bergson was elected to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, and became a member of the Institute. In 1903 he contributed to the Revue de metaphysique et de morale a very important essay entitled Introduction to Metaphysics (Introduction à la metaphysique), which is useful as a preface to the study of his three large books.
On the death of Gabriel Tarde, the eminent sociologist, in 1904, Bergson succeeded him in the Chair of Modern Philosophy. From the 4th to September 8 of that year he was at Geneva attending the Second International Congress of Philosophy, when he lectured on The Mind and Thought: A Philosophical Illusion (Le cerveau et la pensée: une illusion philosophique). An illness prevented his visiting Germany to attend the Third Congress held at Heidelberg.
His third major work, Creative Evolution, appeared in 1907, and is undoubtedly the most widely known and most discussed. It constitutes one of the most profound and original contributions to the philosophical consideration of the theory of evolution. Imbart de la Tour remarked that Creative Evolution was a milestone of new direction in thought. By 1918, Alcan, the publisher, had issued twenty-one editions, making an average of two editions per annum for ten years. Following the appearance of this book, Bergson's popularity increased enormously, not only in academic circles, but among the general reading public.

Education and career
Bergson came to London in 1908 and visited William James, the Harvard philosopher who was Bergson's senior by seventeen years, and who was instrumental in calling the attention of the Anglo-American public to the work of the French professor. James's impression of Bergson is given in his Letters under date of October 4, 1908. "So modest and unpretending a man but such a genius intellectually! I have the strongest suspicions that the tendency which he has brought to a focus, will end by prevailing, and that the present epoch will be a sort of turning point in the history of philosophy."
As early as 1880 James had contributed an article in French to the periodical La Critique philosophique, of Renouvier and Pillon, entitled Le Sentiment de l'Effort. Four years later a couple of articles by him appeared in the journal Mind: "What is an Emotion?" and "On some Omissions of Introspective Psychology." Of these articles the first two were quoted by Bergson in his 1889 work, Time and Free Will. In the following years 1890-91 appeared the two volumes of James's monumental work, The Principles of Psychology, in which he refers to a pathological phenomenon observed by Bergson. Some writers, taking merely these dates into consideration and overlooking the fact that James's investigations had been proceeding since 1870 (registered from time to time by various articles which culminated in "The Principles"), have mistakenly dated Bergson's ideas as earlier than James's.
It has been suggested that Bergson owes the root ideas of his first book to the 1884 article by James, "On Some Omissions of Introspective Psychology," which he neither refers to nor quotes. This article deals with the conception of thought as a stream of consciousness, which intellect distorts by framing into concepts. Bergson replied to this insinuation by denying that he had any knowledge of the article by James when he wrote Les données immédiates de la conscience. The two thinkers appear to have developed independently until almost the close of the century. They are further apart in their intellectual position than is frequently supposed. Both have succeeded in appealing to audiences far beyond the purely academic sphere, but only in their mutual rejection of "intellectualism" as final is there real unanimity. Although James was slightly ahead in the development and enunciation of his ideas, he confessed that he was baffled by many of Bergson's notions. James certainly neglected many of the deeper metaphysical aspects of Bergson's thought, which did not harmonize with his own, and are even in direct contradiction. In addition to this, Bergson can hardly be considered a pragmatist. For him, "utility," far from being a test of truth, was in fact the reverse: a synonym for error.
Nevertheless, William James hailed Bergson as an ally. Early in the century (1903) he wrote: "I have been re-reading Bergson's books, and nothing that I have read since years has so excited and stimulated my thoughts. I am sure that that philosophy has a great future, it breaks through old cadres and brings things into a solution from which new crystals can be got." The most noteworthy tributes paid by him to Bergson were those made in the Hibbert Lectures (A Pluralistic Universe), which James gave at Manchester College, Oxford, shortly after meeting Bergson in London. He remarks on the encouragement he has received from Bergson's thought, and refers to the confidence he has in being "able to lean on Bergson's authority."
The influence of Bergson had led him "to renounce the intellectualist method and the current notion that logic is an adequate measure of what can or cannot be." It had induced him, he continued, "to give up logic, squarely and irrevocably" as a method, for he found that "reality, life, experience, concreteness, immediacy, use what word you will, exceeds our logic, overflows, and surrounds it."
These remarks, which appeared in James's book A Pluralistic Universe in 1909, impelled many English and American readers to an investigation of Bergson's philosophy for themselves. A certain handicap existed in that his greatest work had not then been translated into English. James, however, encouraged and assisted Dr. Arthur Mitchell in his preparation of the English translation of Creative Evolution. In August of 1910 James died. It was his intention, had he lived to see the completion of the translation, to introduce it to the English reading public by a prefatory note of appreciation. In the following year the translation was completed and still greater interest in Bergson and his work was the result. By a coincidence, in that same year (1911), Bergson penned a preface of sixteen pages entitled Truth and Reality for the French translation of James's book, "Pragmatism". In it he expressed sympathetic appreciation of James's work, coupled with certain important reservations.
In April (5th to 11th) Bergson attended the Fourth International Congress of Philosophy held at Bologna, in Italy, where he gave an address on "Philosophical Intuition". In response to invitations he visited England in May of that year, and on several subsequent occasions. These visits were well received. His speeches offered new perspectives and elucidated many passages in his three major works: Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory, and Creative Evolution. Although necessarily brief statements, they developed and enriched the ideas in his books and clarified for English audiences the fundamental principles of his philosophy.

The lectures on Change, and Bergson's later life
From his first publications, Bergson's philosophy attracted strong criticism. Many writers of the early 20th century criticized his intuitionism, indeterminism, psychologism and confused interpretation of the scientific impulse. Among those who explicitly criticized Bergson (either in published articles or letters) were Bertrand Russell (see his short book on the subject), George Santayana (see his study on the author in "Winds of Doctrine"), G. E. Moore, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Julien Benda (see his book on the subject), T. S. Eliot, Paul Valéry (despite some recent claims otherwise), Andre Gide (see below), Marxists philosophers such as Theodor W. Adorno (see "Against Epistemology"), Lucio Colletti (see "Hegel and Marxism"), Maurice Blanchot (see Bergson and Symbolism), Jean-Paul Sartre (see his early book Imagination) and Georges Politzer (see the latter's two books on the subject: Le Bergsonisme, une Mystification Philosophique and La fin d'une parade philosophique: le Bergsonisme both of which had a tremendous effect on French existential phenomenology), American philosophers such as Irving Babbitt, Arthur Lovejoy, Josiah Royce, The New Realists (Ralph B. Perry, E. B. Holt, and William P. Montague), The Critical Realists (Durant Drake, Roy W. Sellars, C. A. Strong, and A. K. Rogers), Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Roger Fry (see his letters), and Virginia Woolf (for the latter, see Ann Banfield, The Phantom Table).
C. S. Peirce took strong exception to being aligned with Bergson. In response to a letter comparing his work with that of Bergson he wrote, "a man who seeks to further science can hardly commit a greater sin than to use the terms of his science without anxious care to use them with strict accuracy; it is not very gratifying to my feelings to be classed along with a Bergson who seems to be doing his prettiest to muddle all distinctions." William James's students resisted the assimilation of his work to that of Bergson's. See, for example, Horace Kallen's book on the subject James and Bergson. As Jean Wahl described the "ultimate disagreement" between James and Bergson in his System of Metaphysics: "for James, the consideration of action is necessary for the definition of truth, according to Bergson, action...must be kept from our mind if we want to see the truth." Gide even went so far as to say that future historians will over-estimate Bergson's influence on art and philosophy just because he was the self-appointed spokesman for "the spirit of the age." As early as the 1890s, Santayana attacked certain key concepts in Bergson's philosophy, above all his view of the New and the indeterminate: "the possibility of a new and unaccountable fact appearing at any time," he writes in his book on Lotze, "does not practically affect the method of investigation;...the only thing given up is the hope that these hypotheses may ever be adequate to the reality and cover the process of nature without leaving a remainder. This is no great renunciation; for that consummation of by no one really expected." According to Santayana and Russell, Bergson projected false claims onto the aspirations of scientific method, which Bergson needed to make in order to justify his prior moral commitment to freedom. Russell takes particular exception to Bergson's understanding of number in chapter two of Time and Free-will. According to Russell, Bergson uses an outmoded spatial metaphor ("extended images") to describe the nature of mathematics as well as logic in general. "Bergson only succeeds in making his theory of number possible by confusing a particular collection with the number of its terms, and this again with number in general," writes Russell (see The Philosophy of Bergson and A History of Western Philosophy). Further still, the élan vital was seen to be a projection of the inner life, a moral feeling, onto the world at large. The external world, according to certain theories of probability, provides less and less indeterminism with further refinement of scientific method. In brief, the moral, psychological, and aesthethic demand for the new, the underivable and the unexplained should not be confused with our imagination of the universe at large. A difference remains between our inner sense of becoming and the non-human character of the outer world, which, according to the ancient materialist Lucretius should not be characterized as either one of becoming or being, creation or destruction (De Rerum Natura).


Élan vital
Philosophy of biology
Process philosophy
Alfred North Whitehead
William James
Gilles Deleuze
Charles Peguy Henri BergsonHenri Bergson Notes

Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness 1910. (Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience 1889) Dover Publications 2001: ISBN 0-486-41767-0 – Bergson's doctoral dissertation
Matter and Memory 1911. (Matière et mémoire 1896) Zone Books 1990: ISBN 0-942299-05-1, Dover Publications 2004: ISBN 0-486-43415-X
Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic 1901. (Le rire) Green Integer 1998: ISBN 1-892295-02-4, Dover Publications 2005: ISBN 0-486-44380-9
Creative Evolution 1910. (L'Evolution créatrice 1907) University Press of America 1983: ISBN 0-8191-3553-4, Dover Publications 1998: ISBN 0-486-40036-0, Kessinger Publishing 2003: ISBN 0-7661-4732-0, Cosimo 2005: ISBN 1-59605-309-7
Mind-energy 1920. (L'Energie spirituelle 1919) McMillan. – a collection of essays and lectures
Duration and Simultaneity: Bergson and the Einsteinian Universe 1922. Clinamen Press Ltd. ISBN 1-903083-01-X
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion 1932. {Les Deux Sources de la Morale et de la Religion) University of Notre Dame Press 1977: ISBN 0-268-01835-9
The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics 1946. (La Pensée et le mouvant 1934) Citadel Press 2002: ISBN 0-8065-2326-3 – essay collection, sequel to Mind-Energy, including 1903's "An Introduction to Metaphysics"

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government.
In the United Kingdom, it has traditionally referred to self-government, or devolution, for constituent nations (namely Scotland, Wales and Ireland). Home rule also refers analogously to the process and mechanisms of self-government by municipalities in many countries with respect to their immediately superior level of government (e.g., U.S. states, in which context see special legislation). It can also refer to the similar system by which Greenland and the Faroe Islands are associated to Denmark.
In the British Empire, there were vigorous demands for Home Rule by activists in Ireland and India.
Home Rule is not however comparable with federalism. Whereas states in a federal system of government (e.g., Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America) have a guaranteed constitutional existence, a devolved home rule system of government is created by ordinary legislation and can be reformed, or even abolished by mere repeal or amendment of that ordinary legislation.

Home RuleHome Rule Indian Home Rule

Main article: Home Rule Movement

Monday, November 26, 2007

Written Chinese refers to the written symbols used to represent spoken Chinese, along with rules and conventions about how they are arranged and punctuated. These symbols are commonly known as Chinese characters (traditional/simplified Chinese: 漢字/汉字; pīnyīn: hànzì), many of which have been definitively traced back to the 商 Shāng Dynasty about 1500 BCE, though the process of creating characters likely began some centuries earlier.

Chinese characters in other languages
Written Chinese is unusual in being the only major modern-day writing system not based predominantly on an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose parts may depict objects or represent abstract notions. These parts may occasionally stand alone as independent characters; far more typically, they are combined, using a variety of different principles, to form more complex characters. The most popularly known exposition of Chinese character composition is the 說文解字/说文解字 Shuōwén Jiězì, compiled by 許慎/许慎 Xǚ Shèn around 120 CE. Since Xǚ Shèn did not have access to Chinese characters in their earliest forms, his analysis, based as it is on somewhat later forms, cannot be taken as authoritative.
The last two principles do not produce new written forms; instead, they transfer new meanings to existing forms:
Chinese characters are generally written to fit into a square (except for simple characters such as 一 yī "one" for which this is not possible), even when they are composed of two simpler forms written side by side or top to bottom. In such cases, each form is compressed appropriately so that the entire character continues to fit into a square.

象形 xiàngxíng: Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes. Examples: 人 rén "person", 日 rì "sun", 木 mù "tree/wood".
指事 zhǐshì: Indicatives, or ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion. Examples: 上 shàng "up", 下 xià "down", 三 sān "three".
會意/会意 huìyì: Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning. This yields a composite meaning, which is then applied to the new character. Example: 東/东 dōng "east", which represents a sun rising in the trees.
形聲/形声 xíngshēng: Phonetic complexes, in which one part indicates the general semantic category of the character (such as water-related or eye-related), and the other part is another character, used exclusively (in most cases) for its phonetic value. Example: 晴 qíng "clear/fair (weather)", which is composed of 日 rì "sun", and 青 qīng "blue/green", which is used solely for its pronunciation.
轉注/转注 zhuǎnzhù: Transference, in which a character, often with a simple, concrete meaning takes on an extended, more abstract meaning. Example: 網/网 wǎng "net", which was originally a pictograph depicting a fishing net. Over time, it has taken on an extended meaning, covering any kind of lattice. Today, in fact, it can be used to refer to a computer network; the word 網上/网上 wǎngshàng means "on the Internet".
假借 jiǎjiè: False borrowing, in which a character is used, either intentionally or accidentally, for some entirely different purpose. Example: 哥 gē "older brother", which is written with a character originally meaning "song/sing", now written 歌 gē. At one point, there was no character for "older brother", so an otherwise unrelated character with the right pronunciation was borrowed for the purpose. Chinese writing system The structure of Chinese characters

Main article: Chinese calligraphy Chinese written forms
The seal script, though the earliest surviving form of Chinese writing, does not represent the embryonic stage of Chinese writing. The first indisputable evidence of Chinese writing, dating back to the Shāng Dynasty in the latter half of the second millennium BCE, comes to us in the form of so-called oracle bones (primarily ox scapulae and turtle shells), used for divination. Characters were inscribed on the bones in order to frame a query; the bones were then heated over a fire, and the resulting cracks were interpreted to determine the answer to the query. Such characters are called 甲骨文 jiǎgǔwén "shell-bone script" or oracle bone script.

Earlier forms

Main articles: Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, and Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters Simplified and traditional Chinese
Chinese characters conform to a roughly square frame and are not usually linked to one another, so they can conceivably be written in any direction in a square grid. Traditionally, Chinese is written in vertical columns from top to bottom; the first column is on the right side of the page, and the text runs toward the left. Text written in Classical Chinese also uses little or no punctuation.

Layout of written Chinese
Because the majority of modern Chinese words are polysyllabic (and therefore multi-character), there are at least two measuring sticks by which Chinese literacy can be measured: the number of characters known, and the number of words (character combinations with specific meanings) known. John DeFrancis, in the introduction to his Advanced Chinese Reader, suggests that a typical Chinese college graduate recognizes perhaps 4,000 to 5,000 characters, and 40,000 to 60,000 words. Examples of this phenomenon remain in common use to this day, as for instance 雞/鸡 jī "rooster", whose right side can also be written as 鳥/鸟 niǎo (in fact, the simplified character is already written that way). The two alternative right halves are different characters for "bird".

Chinese dictionaries

Main articles: Pinyin, Zhuyin, Wade-Giles, and Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Sunday, November 25, 2007

San Antonio College
San Antonio College ("SAC"), is the largest collegiate campus of the Alamo Community College District in San Antonio, TX.
ACCD is "the tenth largest" college system in the United States, "the second largest system in Texas", and "each of the ACCD's five colleges is ranked among the Top-10 Hispanic serving 2-year institutions in America".

Saturday, November 24, 2007

ABC 2000 Today
ABC 2000 Today was ABC News's coverage of the millennium from December 31, 1999 into January 1, 2000. Peter Jennings anchored the 23 hours and 10 minutes of broadcast in Times Square Studios in New York. ABC temporarily converted the Good Morning America marquee broadcast studio into a type of "millennium command center" that included a desk, where a standing Jennings spent most of his time, two lounge chairs, where Jennings would interview guests, a large screen with a time-zone included map of the world, a wall of clocks, and a make-shift newsroom where ABC News staffers would follow the latest developments.


2000 Today

Friday, November 23, 2007

Jonathan Klein (CNN)
Jonathan Klein is the president of CNN/US. He was given the position in November 2004. Prior to that, he was the founder and president of a New York City online media company, The Feedroom.
Jon was born in New York and attended New Rochelle High School. He graduated from Brown University in 1980. He worked as a news writer and associate producer for the CBS affiliate station in Providence R.I., and later was a producer for CBS News in New York.

Thursday, November 22, 2007

Bristol Sonics
Bristol Sonics are a rugby league club based in Bristol in the South West of England.
The Sonics were formed in the autumn of 2002 by a group of rugby league enthusiasts in the city. The club colours of maroon and gold were chosen as a tribute to Bristol's original rugby league club, which ran from the early 1980s to the early 1990s before disbanding. The Sonics name comes from Bristol's links with the development of the Concorde supersonic passenger jet, which was built and tested close to the club's original ground in Filton.
The Sonics operate two open age teams. The first team currently plays in the West Midlands Division of the Cooperative Rugby League Conference, alongside the likes of Oxford Cavaliers, Burntwood Barbarians, Wolverhampton Wizards, Redditch Ravens and Coventry Bears 'A'. The second team, the Subsonics, plays friendlies and one-off games against other social rugby league sides. 2006 saw the formation of the Sonic Youth, the club's youth and junior section.

Final table

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

WikiProject Telecommunications may be able to help recruit one. If a more appropriate WikiProject or portal exists, please adjust this template accordingly. The term Wireless Telegraphy is a historic term rarely used today except as applied to early radio telegraph communications. Wireless telegraphy originated as a term to describe electrical signaling without the electric wires to connect the end points. The intent was to distinguish it from the conventional electric telegraph signaling of the day that required wire connection between the end points. The term was initially applied to a variety of competing technologies to communicate messages encoded as symbols, without wires around the turn of the twentieth century with radio emerging as the most significant. These other competing wireless telegraphy technologies are interesting, but pale in significance. Wireless telegraphy rapidly came to be synonymous with Morse Code transmitted with electromagnetic waves decades before it came to be associated with the term radio. Wireless telegraphy is rarely used today except by amateur radio hobbiests where it commonly referred to as continuous wave (CW) radio telegraphy, or just CW.

Wireless telegraphy Ground and water conduction
Both electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were used to develop wireless telegraph systems which saw limited commercial application. In the United States, Thomas Edison, in the mid-1880s, patented an electrostatic induction system he called "grasshopper telegraphy", which allowed telegraphic signals to jump the short distance between a running train and telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks. This system was successful technically but not economically, as there turned out to be little interest by train travelers in an on-board telegraph service. (U.S. Patent 465,971 , Means for Transmitting Signals Electrically, 1891).
The most successful creator of an electromagnetic induction system was William Preece in Great Britain. Beginning with tests across the Bristol Channel in 1892, Preece was able to telegraph across gaps of about 5 kilometers. However, his induction system required extensive lengths of wire, many kilometers long, at both the sending and receiving ends, which made it impractical for use on ships or small islands, and the relatively short distances spanned meant it had few advantages over underwater cables.

Electrostatic Induction and Electromagnetic Induction
Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) in a series of groundbreaking experiments in Germany during the 1880s. This led to work in using radio signals for wireless communication, initially with limited success. Using spark-gap transmitters plus coherer-receivers were tried by many experimenters, but several were unable to achieve transmission ranges of more than a few hundred metres. This was not the case for all researchers in the field of the wireless arts, though. By 1897, Guglielmo Marconi conducted a series of demonstrations with an economical radio system for signalling for communications over practical distances. This helped popularize radio communication activity worldwide, which is covered in depth by Invention of Radio and History of Radio.
By the 1920s, there was a worldwide network of commercial and government radiotelegraphic stations, plus extensive use of radiotelegraphy by ships for both commercial purposes and passenger messages. The ultimate implementation of wireless telegraphy was telex using radio signals, which was developed in the 1940s, and was for many years the only reliable form of communication between many distant countries. The most advanced standard, CCITT R.44, automated both routing and encoding of messages by short wave transmissions. (See telegraphy for more information).


John Joseph Fahie, A History of Wireless Telegraphy, 1838-1899: including some bare-wire proposals for subaqueous telegraphs, 1899 (first edition).
John Joseph Fahie, A History of Wireless Telegraphy: including some bare-wire proposals for subaqueous telegraphs, 1901 (second edition).
John Joseph Fahie, A History of Wireless Telegraphy: including some bare-wire proposals for subaqueous telegraphs, 1901 (second edition, in HTML format).
James Bowman Lindsay A short biography on his efforts on electric lamps and telegraphy.
Sparks Telegraph Key Review

Monday, November 19, 2007

Latacunga is a plateau town of Ecuador, capital of the Cotopaxi Province, 89 km (55 miles) south of Quito, near the confluence of the Alaques and Cutuchi rivers to form the Patate, the headstream of the Pastaza. The population of Latacunga is 51,689 [1], largely mestizo and indigenous.
Latacunga, is an hour and half south from Quito on the Pan-American Highway. It was previously also in the old road from Quito to Guayaquil to Quito, and has railway station between those cities. It is 9,055 ft (2,760 m). above sea level, and its climate is cold and windy, owing them to the neighboring snowclad heights, and the barren, pumice-covered tableland on which it stands. The active volcano Cotopaxi is only 25 m. distant, and the town has suffered repeatedly from eruptions. Founded in 1534, it was four times destroyed by earthquakes between 1698 and 1798. The neighboring ruins of an older native town are said to date from the Incas.
Latacunga's most noted food is chugchucaras, which is composed of pork, hominy (stewed maize), empanadas, plantains, popcorn, and tostado (a type of toasted corn.) Often paired with ají, a type of condiment that can be mild to very spicy depending on how it's prepared.
Latacunga economy is dependent on agriculture, and floriculture. It has an international airport that is not used for international passenger use, but as Air Force base and some special commercial flights. The presence of volcanic activity, has led to the accumulation of pumice deposits which are currently mined, as well as the presence of natural sparkling water, which is bottle under the brandname San Felipe.

Sunday, November 18, 2007

Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold or Charles the Rash (French: Charles le Téméraire), he was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy and his early death was a pivotal, if under-recognised, moment in European history. After his death, his domains began an inevitable slide towards division between France and the Habsburgs (who through marriage to his heiress Mary of Burgundy became his heirs). Neither side was satisfied with the results and the disintegration of the Burgundian state was a factor in most major wars in Western Europe for over two centuries.

Early battles

Main article: Treaty of Péronne Treaty of Péronne
Other matters, moreover, engaged his attention. Relinquishing, if not the stately magnificence, at least some of the extravagance which had characterized the court of Burgundy under his father, he had bent all his efforts towards the development of his military and political power. Since the beginning of his reign he had employed himself in reorganizing his army and the administration of his territories. While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he had endeavoured to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops, which he had strengthened by taking into his pay foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and by developing his artillery.

Charles the Bold Domestic policies
Furthermore, he had lost no opportunity of extending his power. In 1469, the Archduke of Austria, Sigismund, had sold him the county of Ferrette, the Landgraviate of Alsace, and some other towns, reserving to himself the right to repurchase.
In October 1470, his brother in law, Edward IV of England, the King of England, and many Yorkist followers, took refuge in the Burgundian Court while the deposed Henry VI was placed back on the throne in the Readeption of Henry VI. The following March, with Burgundian support, Edward landed back in England and by May had reclaimed the crown.
In 1472-1473, Charles bought the reversion of the Duchy of Guelders (ie the right to succeed to it) from its old Duke, Arnold, whom he had supported against the rebellion of his son. Not content with being "the Grand Duke of the West," he conceived the project of forming a kingdom of Burgundy or Arles with himself as independent sovereign, and even persuaded the Emperor Frederick to assent to crown him king at Trier. The ceremony, however, did not take place owing to the Emperor's precipitate flight by night (September 1473), occasioned by his displeasure at the Duke's attitude.

Building a kingdom
In the following year Charles involved himself in a series of difficulties and struggles which ultimately brought about his downfall. He embroiled himself successively with the Archduke Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum; with the Swiss, who supported the free towns of Upper Rhine in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor, Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned by a special international tribunal and executed on May 9, 1474); and finally, with René II, Duke of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession of Lorraine, the possession of which had united the two principal portions of Charles's territories— Flanders and the Low Countries and the Duchy and County of Burgundy. All these enemies, incited and supported as they were by Louis, were not long in joining forces against their common adversary.
Charles suffered a first rebuff in endeavouring to protect his kinsman, the Archbishop of Cologne, against his rebel subjects. He spent ten months (July 1474 – June 1475) besieging the little town of Neuss on the Rhine (the Siege of Neuss), but was compelled by the approach of a powerful imperial army to raise the siege. Moreover, the expedition he had persuaded his brother-in-law, Edward IV of England, to undertake against Louis was stopped by the Treaty of Picquigny (29 August 1475). He was more successful in Lorraine, where he seized Nancy (30 November 1475).
From Nancy he marched against the Swiss, hanging or drowning the garrison of Grandson, a possession of the Savoyard Jacques de Romont, a close ally of Charles, which the Confederates had invested shortly before, and in spite of their capitulation. Some days later, however, he was attacked before Grandson by the confederate army in the Battle of Grandson and suffered a shameful defeat, being compelled to flee with a handful of attendants, and leaving his artillery and an immense booty (including his silver bath) in the hands of the allies (March 2, 1476).
He succeeded in raising a fresh army of 30,000 men, with which he attacked Morat, but he was again defeated by the Swiss army, assisted by the cavalry of René II, Duke of Lorraine (22 June 1476). On this occasion, and unlike the debacle at Grandson, little booty was lost, but Charles certainly lost about one third of his entire army, the unfortunate losers being pushed into the nearby lake where they were drowned or shot at whilst trying to swim to safety on the opposite shore. On October 6 Charles lost Nancy, which René re-entered.

Making a last effort, Charles formed a new army and arrived in the depth of winter before the walls of Nancy. Having lost many of his troops through the severe cold, it was with only a few thousand men that he met the joint forces of the Lorrainers and the Swiss, who had come to the relief of the town, at the Battle of Nancy (5 January 1477). He himself perished in the fight, his naked body being discovered some days afterwards, the face so mutilated by wild animals that only his physician was able to identify him by old scars on his body.

Death at Nancy
Charles left his unmarried nineteen year-old daughter as his heir; clearly her marriage would have enormous implications for the political balance of Europe. Both Louis and the Emperor had unmarried eldest sons; Charles had made some movements towards arranging a marriage between the Emperor's son, Maximilian, before his own death. Louis unwisely concentrated on seizing militarily the border territories, in particular the Duchy of Burgundy (a French fief). This naturally made negotiations for a marriage difficult. He later admitted to his councillor Philippe de Commynes that this was his greatest mistake. In the meantime the Hapsburg Emperor moved faster and more purposefully and secured the match for his son, the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, with the aid of Mary's step-mother, Margaret.
Charles the Bold has often been regarded as the last representative of the feudal spirit—a man who possessed no other quality than a blind bravery. He cannot however be said to have embodied chivalric notions, as did his father, for even by the standards of the time, he displayed wanton cruelty. In view of Charles' irrational behaviour in the last year or so of his life, it has even been suggested that he became mentally unstable.
Charles was also a great admirer of exotic animals and had the first peacocks imported into Burgandy. His attempts to import an elephant for his daughter ultimately failed however.



14335 January 1477: Count of Charolais as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Duke of Burgundy as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Duke of Brabant as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Duke of Limburg as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Duke of Lothier as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Duke of Luxemburg as Charles II
15 June 14675 January 1477: Margrave of Namur as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count Palatine of Burgundy as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count of Artois as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count of Flanders as Charles II
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count of Hainault as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count of Holland as Charles I
15 June 14675 January 1477: Count of Zeeland as Charles I
23 February 14735 January 1477: Duke of Guelders as Charles I
23 February 14735 January 1477: Count of Zutphen as Charles I Further reading

Burgundian Netherlands
Burgundian Wars
Jacques, Duke of Savoy
Dukes of Burgundy family tree

Saturday, November 17, 2007

Edict of Pistres
The Edict of Pistres or Edictum Pistensis is often held up as one of the few examples, if not the sole example, of good government from Charles the Bald, the man who can be called first king of France. The edict was promulgated, as its name suggests, at Pistres (modern Pîtres, in Eure) on July 25, 864.
At a time when Vikings more than annually ravaged not only the European coast, but much of the interior (especially in France) as well, a king was most valued who could defeat them in the field and prevent their attacks in the future. The primary, and most long-lasting, effect of the Edict was therefore to protect the cities and countryside from Viking raids. Charles did this by creating a large force of cavalry upon which he could call as needed. He ordered all men who had horses or could afford horses to serve in the army as cavalrymen. This was one of the beginnings of the French chivalry so famous for the next seven centuries. The intention of Charles was to have a mobile force with which to descend upon the raiders before they could up and leave with their booty.
To prevent the Vikings from even attaining a great booty, Charles also declared that fortified bridges should be built at all towns on rivers. This was to prevent the dreaded longships from sailing into the interior. The first bridge built was at Pistres itself, across the Seine. At Paris, bridges were built on both sides of the Île de la Cité. Those bridges would save the city in the siege of 885–886. Charles also prohibited all trade in weapons with the Vikings, in order to prevent them from establishing bases in Gaul.
Asides from its auspicious military reforms, the Edict had political and economic consequences. King Pepin II of Aquitaine, against whom Charles had been fighting for decades, had been captured in 864 and was formally deposed at Pistres. Economically, besides the prohibitions on commerce with the enemy, Charles tightened his control of the mints and limited them in number to ten. Charles also made an attempt to control the building of private castles, but this failed and even minor lords constructed fortresses of their own on local hilltops to defend themselves and their underlings from the constant threat of Scandinavian invasion.

See also

List of treaties

Friday, November 16, 2007

G4 Media
G4 Media, Inc. is the parent company of G4, a 24-hour cable and satellite channel originally dedicated to video games. Comcast holds a controlling interest in G4 Media, with EchoStar holding a minority interest of approximately 12%.
In early 2004, G4 Media (at the time owned entirely by Comcast) announced the purchase of a controlling interest in TechTV. On May 28, 2004, G4 and TechTV merged into a hybrid network called G4techTV. EchoStar (which held a minority interest in TechTV) retained partial ownership of the combined entity.
The new network leaned more toward the gaming programming that was featured on G4 than the technology side that was featured on TechTV, prompting petitions and complaints from disaffected TechTV fans. On February 15, 2005, TechTV was officially dropped from the network name in the United States, leaving only three TechTV shows, X-Play, Anime Unleashed (removed indefinitely as of March 2006) and The Screen Savers (later rebranded as Attack of the Show!). The network is currently called G4, and now focuses on general male interest programming.
G4 Media holds a 33.3% minority interest in G4techTV Canada, G4's Canadian counterpart. G4techTV Canada has retained the TechTV brand as a result of restrictions by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.
On October 13, 2006, Comcast announced that it will consolidate G4, bringing it under E! Networks. G4's executive staff will move into E!'s Los Angeles offices and layoffs may occur.

Thursday, November 15, 2007

Ladislaus II of Hungary
Ladislaus II or László II (Hungarian: II. László; Slovak: Ladislav II., Croatian: Ladislav I.), (1131January 14, 1163), was King of Hungary from 1162 to 1163.
Ladislaus was the second son of King Béla II of Hungary by Jelena of Serbia. In 1137, his father named him Duke of Bosnia, but Ladislaus quarreled with his brother Géza II and was forced into exile. Like his younger brother Stephen, Ladislaus sought the support of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
After the death of Géza II in May 1162, the throne passed to his young son Stephen III, but the Byzantine emperor threatened the Hungarian nobility, forcing it to accept Ladislaus as king. The reign of Ladislaus lasted for only about half a year, from July 15, 1162 to his death on January 14, 1163. Almost nothing is known about his short reign. Already recognized his brother's heir, Stephen IV succeeded to the throne. By a wife whose name is unknown, Ladislaus had a daughter, Mária.
In medieval times, he was not counted as a king (being only an anti-king). So Ladislaus III was also counted as Ladislaus II.

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Roslin (sometimes spelt Rosslyn) is a village in Midlothian, Scotland, to the south of the Scottish capital city Edinburgh. It is situated approximately 12 miles (20 km) from Edinburgh Airport.
The name Roslin derives from the Celtic words "ross", a rocky promontory, and "lynn", a waterfall. Legend has it the village was founded in 203 A.D. by Asterius, a Pict.Another possible name orgin of Roslin is the ley line named Roseline that runs directly through the chapel at Rosslyn; but this seems unlikely as no direct proof has ever been found that ley lines exist. Roslin became important as the seat of the St. Clair family. In 1456 King James II granted it the status of a burgh. Coal mining has been a major occupation from the twelfth to the late twentieth centuries. The village was put in the world media spotlight when hollywood,s Tom Hanks & co came to Roslin September 2005 to film the blockbusting movie the Da Vinci Code, locals put on a party & invited the cast & crewe to celebrate the revelations as disclosed in the fact-fiction book written by Dan Brown. As a direct result 175000 pilgrim,s made the journey to the village the year the film was released, to make there own conclusion,s. There is now a country park in Roslin Glen.
The Dunedin, New Zealand suburb of Roslyn was named after Roslin; as was Roslindale, Boston, Massachusetts as well as Roslin, Ontario, Canada.
Roslin, Scotland Rosslyn Chapel
Roslin Castle
Battle of Roslin, 1303 [1]
Roslin Institute, where Dolly the Sheep was cloned.